1. Public Health England. HIV in the United Kingdom. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/hiv-in-the-united-kingdom
2. Peters H, Francis K, Sconza R et al. UK mother-to-child transmission rates continue to decline: 2012–2014. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 64:527–528.
3. British HIV Association. Standards of care for people living with HIV 2013. London: BHIVA, 2012. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/standards-of-care-2013
4. HIV Scotland. National involvement standards (HIV): involving people living with HIV in Scotland. 2017. Available at: https://www.hiv.scot/news/national-involvement-standards-involving-people-living-with-hiv
5. BPS, BHIVA, MedFASH. Standards for psychological support for adults living with HIV. 2011. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/StandardsForPsychologicalSupport
6. Positively UK. National standards for peer support in HIV. 2017. Available at: http://hivpeersupport.com/
7. UNAIDS. Terminology guidelines. UNAIDS, 2015. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2015_terminology_guidelines_en.pdf
8. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. HIV testing: encouraging uptake. Quality standard (QS157). London: NICE, 2017. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs157
9. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV. NICE guideline NG60. London: NICE, 2016. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng60
10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Behaviour change: individual approaches. Public health guideline [PH49]. London: NICE, 2014. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph49
11. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-positive individuals. London: BHIVA, 2016. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/monitoring-guidelines
12. Leber W, McMullen H, Marlin N et al. Promotion of rapid testing for HIV in primary care (RHIVA2): a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet HIV 2015; 2: e317–e318.
13. Baggaley RF, Irvine MA, Leber W et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in primary care: a health economics modelling analysis. Lancet HIV 2017; 4(10): e465–e474.
14. HIV in Europe working group. HIV indicator conditions: guidance for implementing HIV testing in adults in health care settings. 2015. Available at: http://hiveurope.eu/Portals/0/Guidance.pdf.pdf
15. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Physical health of people in prisons. Quality standard QS156. London: NICE, 2017. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs156
16. BHIVA, CHIVA, BASHH. ‘Don’t forget the Children’: guidance for the HIV testing of children with HIV-positive parents. BHIVA/CHIVA/BASHH, 2009. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/file/FPxfnVqishEbu/DFTC.pdf
17. General Medical Council. Protecting children and young people: the responsibilities of all doctors. 2012. Available at: www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/13257.asp
18. UNAIDS. The Prevention Gap Report: Beginning of the end of the AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS Information Production Unit, 2016. Available at: www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2016-prevention-gap-report_en.pdf
19. McCormack S, Dunn DT, Desai M et al. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial. Lancet 2016; 387: 53–60.
20. Molina JM, Capitant C, Spire B et al. On-demand preexposure prophylaxis in men at high risk of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2237–2246.
21. Bavinton B, Grinsztejn B, Phanuphak N et al. HIV treatment prevents HIV transmission in male serodiscordant couples in Australia, Thailand and Brazil. IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017). Paris, France. July 2017. Available at: http://programme.ias2017.org/Abstract/Abstract/5469
22. Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Brunn T et al. Sexual activity without condoms and risk of HIV transmission in serodifferent couples when the HIV-positive partner is using suppressive antiretroviral therapy. JAMA 2016; 316: 1–11.
23. British HIV Association. BHIVA/BASHH guidelines on the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) – Consultation Version. 2017. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/PrEP-guidelines
24. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy. London: BHIVA, 2015 (2016 interim update). Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/HIV-1-treatment-guidelines
25. Prevention Access Campaign. Risk of sexual transmission of HIV from a person living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load. Messaging primer and consensus statement. 2018. Available at: https://www.preventionaccess.org/consensus
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dear Colleague Letter. September 2017. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/dear_colleague/2017/dcl-092717-National-Gay-Mens-HIV-AIDS-Awareness-Day.html
27. Moore L, Britten N, Lydahl D et al. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of person-centred care in different healthcare contexts. Scand J Caring Sci 2016; 31: 662–673.
28. Robinson JH, Callister LC, Berry JA, Dearing KA. Patient-centered care and adherence: definitions and applications to improve outcomes. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2008; 20: 600–607.
29. World Health Organization. WHO global strategy on people-centred and integrated health services: interim report. 2015. Available at: https://www.who.int/servicedeliverysafety/areas/people-centred-care/global-strategy/en/
30. National Institute for Health Research. Payment for involvement: a guide for making payments to members of the public actively involved in NHS, public health and social care research. 2010. Available at: www.invo.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/INVOLVEPayment-Guiderev2012.pdf
31. Justice AC, Chang CH, Rabeneck L, Zackin R. Clinical importance of provider-reported HIV symptoms compared with patient-report. Med Care 2001; 39: 397–408.
32. Lowther K, Selman L, Harding R, Higginson IJ. Experience of persistent psychological symptoms and perceived stigma among people with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART): a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud 2014; 51: 1171–1189.
33. Harding R, Lampe FC, Norwood S et al. Symptoms are highly prevalent among HIV outpatients and associated with poor adherence and unprotected sexual intercourse. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86: 520–524.
34. Sherr L, Lampe F, Norwood S et al. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment in patients with HIV in the UK: a study of complexity. AIDS Care 2008; 20: 442–448.
35. Sherr L, Lampe F, Fisher M et al. Suicidal ideation in UK HIV clinic attenders. AIDS 2008; 22:1651–1658.
36. Harding R, Clucas C, Lampe FC et al. What factors are associated with patient self-reported health status among HIV outpatients? A multi-centre UK study of biomedical and psychosocial factors. AIDS Care 2012; 24: 963–971.
37. Sherr L, Lampe F, Norwood S et al. Successive switching of antiretroviral therapy is associated with high psychological and physical burden. Int J STD AIDS 2007; 18: 700–704.
38. Harding R, Molloy T. Positive futures? The impact of HIV infection on achieving health, wealth and future planning. AIDS Care 2008; 20: 565–570.
39. Goffman E. Stigma: Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963.
40. National AIDS Trust. Tackling HIV stigma: what works? London: NAT, 2016. Available at: www.nat.org.uk/publication/tackling-hiv-stigma
41. Frost DM. Social stigma and its consequences for the socially stigmatized. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2011; 5; 824–839.
42. NAM AIDSMap. What is discrimination? 2015. Available at: www.aidsmap.com/stigma/What-is-discrimination/page/2260812/
43. Mahajan AP, Sayles JN, Patel VA et al. Stigma in the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a review of the literature and recommendations for the way forward. AIDS 2008; 22(Suppl 2): S67–S79.
44. Positively UK. Improving well-being: the effectiveness of peer support. 2014. Available at: http://positivelyuk.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Evaluation-report-web.pdf
45. Bagnall AM, South J, Hulme C et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of peer education and peer support in prisons. BMC Public Health 2015; 15: 290.
46. Bateganya M, Amanyeiwe U, Roxo U, Dong M. The impact of support groups for people living with HIV on clinical outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015; 68(Suppl 3): S368–S374.
47. Prestage G, Brown G, Allan B et al. Impact of peer support on behavior change among newly diagnosed Australian gay men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2016; 72: 565–571.
48. Howarth A, Apea V, Michie S et al. REACH: a mixed-methods study to investigate the measurement, prediction and improvement of retention and engagement in outpatient HIV care. Health Services and Delivery Research 2017; 5.13. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425236/
49. Baylis A, Buck D, Anderson J et al. The future of HIV services in England. London: King’s Fund, 2017. Available at: www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/future-hiv-services-england
50. Swendeman D, Ingram BL, Rotheram-Borus MJ. Common elements in self-management of HIV and other chronic illnesses: an integrative framework. AIDS care 2009; 21: 1321–1334.
51. Barlow J, Wright C, Sheasby J et al. Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: a review. Patient Educ Couns 2002; 48: 177–187.
52. Kralik D, Koch T, Price K, Howard N. Chronic illness self-management: taking action to create order. J Clin Nurs 2004; 13: 259–267.
53. UNAIDS. Policy brief. The greater involvement of people living with HIV (GIPA). UNAIDS, 2007. Available at: http://data.unaids.org/pub/briefingnote/2007/jc1299_policy_brief_gipa.pdf
54. Equality Act 2010. Available at: www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents
55. Department of Health. Statutory guidance published on joint strategic needs assessments and joint health and wellbeing strategies. 2013. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277012/Statutory-Guidance-on-Joint-Strategic-Needs-Assessments-and-Joint-Health-and-Wellbeing-Strategies-March-20131.pdf
56. Department of Health. NHS Health & Well-being Improvement Framework. 2011. Available from http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/216380/dh_128813.pdf
57. Public Health England. Promoting the health and wellbeing of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: initial findings. London: Public Health England, 2014. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/promoting-the-health-and-wellbeing-of-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
58. Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Chaudoir SR et al. HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: a test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS Behav 2013; 17: 1785–1795.
59. Bing EG, Hays, RD, Jacobson LP et al. Health-related quality of life among people with HIV disease: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Qual Life Res 2000; 9: 55–63.
60. Testa MA, Simonson DC. Assessment of quality-of-life outcomes. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 835–840.
61. Skills for Care, Skills for Health. Person-centred approaches: empowering people in their lives and communities to enable an upgrade in prevention, wellbeing, health, care and support. 2017. Available at: www.scie.org.uk/prevention/research-practice/getdetailedresultbyid?id=a110f00000NeJXwAAN
62. Burch LS, Smith CJ, Anderson J et al. Socioeconomic status and treatment outcomes for individuals with HIV on antiretroviral treatment in the UK: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Lancet Public Health 2016; 1: e26–e36.
63. Kall M, Nardone A, Delpech V et al. ‘Positive Voices’ a survey of the behaviour, experiences, and healthcare needs of people living with HIV: a pilot study methods and respondent characteristics. Abstract P135. HIV Med 2015; 16 (Suppl 2): 55.
64. Foster C. CHIVA guidance on transition for adolescents living with HIV. CHIVA, 2017. Available at: www.chiva.org.uk/files/2814/8587/2242/CHIVA_Transition_Guidelines2017.pdf
65. Borges AH, Neuhaus J, Babiker AG et al. Immediate antiretroviral therapy reduces risk of infection-related cancer during early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 63: 1668–1676.
66. Drozd DR, Kitahata MM, Althoff KN et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals in North America compared with the general population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017; 75: 568–576.
67. Malek R, Mitchell H, Furegato M et al. Contribution of transmission in HIV positive men who have sex with men to evolving epidemics of sexually transmitted infections in England: an analysis using multiple data sources, 2009–2013. 2015. Available at: www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=21093
68. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines on the use of vaccines in HIV-positive adults 2015. London: BHIVA, 2015. Available at: www.bhiva.org/vaccination-guidelines.aspx
69. Nelson M, Dockrell D, Edwards S et al. British HIV Association and British Infection Association guidelines for the treatment of opportunistic infection in HIV-seropositive individuals 2011. HIV Med 2011; 12(Suppl 2): 1–140.
70. Bower M, Palfreeman A, Alfa-Wali M et al. British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2014. HIV Med 2014; 15 (Suppl 2): 1–92.
71. Waters L, Lord E, Mackie N et al. BHIVA/BASHH/FSRH guidelines for the sexual & reproductive health of people living with HIV 2017.
72. Stigma Survey UK 2015. HIV in the UK: changes and challenges; actions and answers The people living with HIV stigma survey UK 2015. National findings. Available at: www.stigmaindexuk.org/reports/2016/NationalReport.pdf
73. Molas E, Luque S, Retamero A et al. Frequency and severity of potential drug interactions in a cohort of HIV-infected patients identified through a multidisciplinary team. HIV Clin Trials 2018; 19: 1–7.
74. HIV Pharmacy Association. Available at: www.hivpa.org/
75. Terrence Higgins Trust. Generic HIV therapy. Available at: www.tht.org.uk/myhiv/HIV-and-you/Your-treatment/Generic-HIV-treatment
76. Lampe F, Speakman A, Phillips A et al. Depression and virological status among UK HIV outpatients: a multicentre study. Abstract O4. HIV Med 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 4.
77. National AIDS Trust. Tackling blood-borne viruses. A framework for prisons in the UK. 2017. Available at: www.hcvaction.org.uk/resource/tackling-blood-borne-viruses-framework-prisons-uk
78. Duerden M, Avery T, Payne R. Polypharmacy and medicines optimisation: making it safe. London: King’s Fund, 2013. Available at: www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/polypharmacy-and-medicines-optimisation-kingsfund-nov13.pdf
79. NHS Specialist Pharmacy Service. Polypharmacy, oligopharmacy & deprescribing: resources to support local delivery. 2017. Available at: www.sps.nhs.uk/articles/polypharmacy-oligopharmacy-deprescribing-resources-to-support-local-delivery/
80. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Medicines optimisation: the safe and effective use of medicines to enable the best possible outcomes. NICE guidance NG5. 2015. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng5
81. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Medicines adherence: involving patients in decisions about prescribed medicines and supporting adherence. Clinical guidance CG76. 2009. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg76
82. Pozniak AL, Coyne KM, Miller RF et al. British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of TB/HIV coinfection 2011. HIV Med 2011; 12: 517–524.
83. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines for the management of TB/HIV co-infection in adults 2017 (consultation version). Available at: www.bhiva.org/guidelines.aspx
84. British HIV Association. BHIVA guidelines for the management of hepatitis viruses in adults infected with HIV 2013 (updated September 2014). HIV Med 2013; 14(Suppl 4): 1–71.
85. Rasmussen LD, May MT, Kronborg G et al. Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Lancet HIV 2015; 2: e288–e298.
86. Ciesla JA, Roberts JE. Meta-analysis of the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depressive disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 725–730.
87. Gonzalez JS, Batchelder AW, Psaros C et al. Depression and HIV treatment nonadherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2011; 58: 181–187.
88. Carrion Martin AI, Kall M, Shahmanesh M et al. Depression-anxiety: the most prevalent co-morbidity among people living with HIV in England and Wales, 2014. Abstract P64. HIV Med 2015; 16 (Suppl 2): 32.
89. Pufall EL, Kall M, Shahmanesh M et al. ‘Chemsex’ and high-risk sexual behaviours in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Boston, MA, USA. February 2016. Abstract 913.
90. Williams EC, Hahn JA, Saitz R et al. Alcohol use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: current knowledge, implications, and future directions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; 40: 2056–2072.
91. Goodwin N, Sonola L, Thiel V, Kodner DL. Co-ordinated care for people with complex chronic conditions. Key lessons and markers for success. London: The King’s Fund, 2013. Available at: www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/co-ordinated-care-people-complex-chronic-conditions
92. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Multimorbidity: clinical assessment and management. NICE guideline NG56. 2016. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng56
93. McCartney M. Making evidence based medicine work for individual patients, BMJ 2016; 353: i2452.
94. The people living with HIV stigma survey UK. Available at: www.stigmaindexuk.org/research-findings/
95. Li Y, Marshall CM, Rees HC et al. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Int AIDS Soc 2014; 17: 18845.
96. Public Health England. Shooting up: infections among people who inject drugs in the UK. London: PHE, 2017. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/663003/Shooting_Up_2017_report.pdf
97. Scottish Drugs Forum. Available at: www.sdf.org.uk/what-we-do/reducing-harm/infection-outbreak-control/hiv/
98. National AIDS Trust. Still no harm reduction? A critical review of the UK government’s new drugs strategy. NAT, 2017. Available at: www.nat.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/English Harm Reduction Group Briefing on 2017 Drug Strategy.pdf
99. World Health Organization. Evidence for action on HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use. Policy brief: Antiretroviral therapy and injecting drug users. WHO, 2005. Available at: apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69130/1/WHO_HIV_2005.06.pdf
100. Heise LL, Raikes A, Watts CH, Zwi AB. Violence against women: a neglected public health issue in less developed countries. Soc Sci Med 1994; 39: 1165–1179.
101. Dhairyawan R, Tariq S, Scourse R, Coyne KM. Intimate partner violence in women living with HIV attending an inner city clinic in the UK: prevalence and associated factors. HIV Med 2013; 14: 303–310.
102. Gielen AC, McDonnell KA, Burke JG, O’Campo P. Women’s lives after an HIV-positive diagnosis: disclosure and violence. Matern Child Health J 2000; 4: 111–120.
103. Sohal H, Eldridge S, Feder G. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice. BMC Fam Pract 2007; 8: 49.
104. Brown TNT, Herman J. Intimate partner violence and sexual abuse among LGBT people: a review of existing evidence. Los Angeles, CA, USA: Williams Institute, 2015. Available at: https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/IPV-Sexual-Abuse-Among-LGBT-Nov-2015.pdf
105. Goldberg N, Meyer IH. Sexual orientation disparities in history of intimate partner violence: results from the California Health Interview Survey. J Interpers Violence 2013; 28: 1109–1118.
106. Sullivan AK, Rayment M, Azad Y et al. HIV partner notification for adults: definitions, outcomes and standards. BHIVA/BASHH/SSHA/NAT, 2015. Available at: www.bhiva.org/HIV-partner-notification-for-adults.aspx
107. British HIV Association. BHIVA endorses ‘Undetectable equals Untransmittable’ (U=U) consensus statement. Available at: www.bhiva.org/BHIVA-endorses-U-U-consensus-statement.aspx
108. Kenny J, Williams B, Prime K et al. Pregnancy outcomes in adolescents in the UK and Ireland growing up with HIV. HIV Med 2012; 13: 304–308.
109. World Health Organization. Consolidated guideline on sexual and reproductive health and rights of women living with HIV. WHO, 2017. Available at: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/gender_rights/Ex-Summ-srhr-women-hiv/en/
110. Consultation version of the BHIVA/BASHH/FSRH guidelines for the sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV 2017. Available at: www.bhiva.org/SRH-guidelines-consultation.aspx
111. British HIV Association. Management of HIV infection in pregnant women 2018 (consultation version). Available at: www.bhiva.org/guidelines.aspx
112. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Menopause: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline NG23. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng23
113. Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare. FSRH Guideline Executive Summary: Contraception after Pregnancy. FSRH, 2017. Available at: www.fsrh.org/documents/contraception-after-pregnancy-guideline-january-2017/
114. Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A, Soriano VV et al. Treatment of medical, psychiatric, and substance-use comorbidities in people infected with HIV who use drugs. Lancet 2010; 376: 367–387.
115. Bogart LM, Wagner GJ, Galvan FH et al. Perceived discrimination and mental health symptoms among Black men with HIV. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2011; 17: 295–302.
116. British Psychological Society, British HIV Association, Medical Foundation for AIDS & Sexual Health. Standards for psychological support for adults living with HIV. 2011. Available at: www.bhiva.org/StandardsForPsychologicalSupport.aspx
117. Catalan J, Ridge D, Rosenfeld D. Positive strategies for mental health and well being used by older people living with HIV: a qualitative investigation. 13th AIDS Impact Conference. Cape Town, South Africa, November 2017. Available at: http://www.aidsimpact.com/abstracts/-KmX5e8wo3PshaCQgOLf
118. Dowshen N, Lee S, Franklin J, Castillo M, Barg F. Access to medical and mental health services across the hiv care continuum among young transgender women: a qualitative study. Transgend Health 2017; 2: 81–90.
119. El-Bassel N, Witte SS, Wada T et al. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2001; 15: 41–51.
120. Haynes BI, Pitkanen M, Kulasegaram R et al. HIV: ageing, cognition and neuroimaging at 4-year follow-up. HIV Med 2018; epub ahead of print.
121. Heaton RK, Franklin DR, Ellis RJ et al. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors. J Neurovirol 2011; 17: 3–16.
122. Henderson C, Thornicroft G. Stigma and discrimination in mental illness: time to Change. Lancet 2009; 373: 1928–1930.
123. People Living with HIV Stigma Index. Give stigma the index finger! Initial findings from The People Living with HIV Stigma Index in the UK. 2009. Available at: www.stigmaindexuk.org/research-findings/
124. Kuyken W, Hayes R, Barrett B et al. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2015; 386: 63–73.
125. Lazarus JV, Safreed-Harmon K, Barton SE et al. Beyond viral suppression of HIV: the new quality of life frontier. BMC Med 2016; 14: 94.
126. National AIDS Trust. HIV: public knowledge and attitudes. London: NAT/Ipsos Mori, 2014. Available at: https://www.nat.org.uk/publication/hivpublic-knowledge-and-attitudes-2014
127. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults: recognition and management. Clinical guideline CG90. 2016. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90
128. National HIV Nurses Association. A national nurse-led audit of the Standards for Psychological Support for Adults Living with HIV. 2015. Available at: www.nhivna.org/audit-of-HIV-psychological-support
129. Orza L, Bewley S, Logie CH et al. How does living with HIV impact on women’s mental health? Voices from a global survey. J Int AIDS Soc 2015; 18(Suppl 5): 20289.
130. Roth A, Fonagy P. What works for whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford Publications, 2005.
131. Springer SA, Spaulding AC, Meyer JP, Altice FL. Public health implications for adequate transitional care for HIV-infected prisoners: five essential components. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 469–479.
132. Su T, Schouten J, Geurtsen GJ et al. Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection. AIDS 2015; 29: 547–557.
133. UNAIDS. The Gap Report: People with disabilities. UNAIDS, 2014. Available at: www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/11_Peoplewithdisabilities.pdf
134. Watson R, Stimpson A, Hostick T. Prison health care: a review of the literature. Int J Nurs Stud 2004; 41: 119–128.
135. Webb L, Perry-Parrish C, Ellen J, Sibinga E. Mindfulness instruction for HIV-infected youth: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS Care 2017; 25:1–8.
136. Blum RW, Garell D, Hodgman CH et al. Transition from child-centered to adult health-care systems for adolescents with chronic conditions: a position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. J Adolesc Health 1993; 14: 570–576.
137. You’re welcome pilot 2017. Refreshed standards for piloting. Available at: www.youngpeopleshealth.org.uk/yourewelcome/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/YoureWelcome_RefreshedsStandards.pdf
138. Children’s HIV Association. Standards of care for infants, children, and young people with HIV (including infants born to mothers with HIV). CHIVA, 2017. Available at: https://www.chiva.org.uk/files/5215/3987/5455/CHIVA_STANDARDS_2017.pdf
139. HYPNET/CHIVA/BASHH/BHIVA. Guidance on the management of sexual and reproductive health for adolescents living with HIV 2011. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/file/DJupUzmhqWwIl/AdolescentSexHealthGuidance.pdf
140. Ely A. Guidance for young people on managing taking HIV medicine. CHIVA, 2015. Available at: www.chiva.org.uk/files/7214/5207/8528/Guidance_for_Young_People_on_Managing_Taking_Medication.pdf
141. Spotting the signs: a national proforma to identify child sexual exploitation in sexual health services. London: BASHH/Brook, 2014. Available at: www.bashh.org/documents/Spotting-the-signs-A national proforma Apr2014.pdf
142. Hudson A, Mbewe R, Delpech V. UK Stigma Index Survey. 2015. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/file/BQYUtwEleOfJi/ValerieDelpech-AlastairHudson-RebeccaMbew.pdf
143. Terrence Higgins Trust. Your rights. Available at: https://www.tht.org.uk/hiv-and-sexual-health/living-well-hiv/your-rights
144. National AIDS Trust. Why we need HIV support services: a review of the evidence. NAT, 2017. Available at: www.nat.org.uk/publication/why-we-need-hiv-support-services-review-evidence
145. Croxford S, Kitching A, Desai S et al. Mortality and causes of death in people diagnosed with HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy compared with the general population: an analysis of a national observational cohort. Lancet Public Health 2017; 2: e35–e46.
146. Cingolani A, Cozzi Lepri A, Teofili L et al. Survival and predictors of death in people with HIV-associated lymphoma compared to those with a diagnosis of lymphoma in general population. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0186549.
147. Smith CJ, Ryom L, Weber R et al. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D): a multicohort collaboration. Lancet 2014; 384: 241–248.
148. Jeon C, Lau C, Kendall CE et al. Mortality and health service use following acute myocardial infarction among persons with HIV: a population-based study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017; 33: 1214–1219.
149. Harding R. Palliative care: an essential component of the HIV care continuum. Lancet HIV 2018.
150. World Health Organization. WHO definition of palliative care. 2013. Available at: www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/
151. Harding R, Higginson IJ. PRISMA: a pan-European co-ordinating action to advance the science in end-of-life cancer care. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46: 1493–1501.
152. Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 733–742.
153. Zimmermann C, Swami N, Krzyzanowska M et al. Early palliative care for patients with advanced cancer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2014; 383: 1721–1730.
154. Higginson IJ, Bausewein C, Reilly CC et al. An integrated palliative and respiratory care service for patients with advanced disease and refractory breathlessness: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2014; 2: 979–987.
155. Temel JS, Greer JA, El-Jawahri A et al. Effects of early integrated palliative care in patients with lung and GI cancer: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 834–841.
156. Gwyther L, Brennan F, Harding R. Advancing palliative care as a human right. J Pain Symptom Manage 2009; 38: 767–774.
157. Simms V, Higginson IJ, Harding R. Integration of palliative care throughout HIV disease. Lancet Infect Dis 2012; 12: 571–575.
158. Higginson IJ, Gomes B, Calanzani N et al. Priorities for treatment, care and information if faced with serious illness: a comparative population-based survey in seven European countries. Palliat Med 2014; 28: 101–110.
159. Harding R, Simms V, Calanzani N et al. If you had less than a year to live, would you want to know? A seven-country European population survey of public preferences for disclosure of poor prognosis. Psychooncology 2013; 22: 2298–2305.
160. Gomes B, Higginson IJ, Calanzani N et al. Preferences for place of death if faced with advanced cancer: a population survey in England, Flanders, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Ann Oncol 2012; 23: 2006–2015
161. Harding R, Marchetti S, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD et al. Place of death for people with HIV: a population-level comparison of eleven countries across three continents using death certificate data. BMC Infect Dis 2017; 18: 55.
162. Harding R, Easterbrook P, Higginson IJ et al. Access and equity in HIV/AIDS palliative care: A review of the evidence and responses. Palliat Med 2005; 19: 251–258.
163. Bristowe K, Hodson M, Wee B et al. Recommendations to reduce inequalities for LGBT people facing advanced illness: ACCESSCare national qualitative interview study. Palliat Med 2018; 32: 23–35.
164. Harding R, Epiphaniou E, Chidgey-Clark J. Needs, experiences, and preferences of sexual minorities for end-of-life care and palliative care: a systematic review. J Palliat Med 2012; 15: 602–611.
165. Bristowe K, Marshall S, Harding R. The bereavement experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans* people who have lost a partner: a systematic review, thematic synthesis and modelling of the literature. Palliat Med 2016; 30: 730–744.
166. Evans N, Menaca A, Koffman J et al. Cultural competence in end-of-life care: terms, definitions, and conceptual models from the British literature. J Palliat Med 2012; 15: 812–820.
167. Evans N, Menaca A, Andrew EV et al. Systematic review of the primary research on minority ethnic groups and end-of-life care from the United Kingdom. J Pain Symptom Manage 2012; 43: 261–286.
168. Koffman J, Morgan M, Edmonds P et al. Cultural meanings of pain: a qualitative study of Black Caribbean and White British patients with advanced cancer. Palliat Med 2008; 22: 350–359.
169. Gysels M, Higginson IJ. Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Adults with Cancer: Research Evidence. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2004.
170. Eagar K, Watters P, Currow DC et al. The Australian Palliative Care Outcomes Collaboration (PCOC): measuring the quality and outcomes of palliative care on a routine basis. Aust Health Rev 2010; 34: 186–192.
171. Sharp L. The people living with HIV stigma index qualitative data: findings of the qualitative work undertaken to complement the people living with HIV stigma index. 2010. Available at: http://www.stigmaindexuk.org/reports/final_qualitative_report_nov_2010.pdf
172. National HIV Nurses Association. National HIV Nursing Competencies. 2013. Available at: https://www.nhivna.org/competencies
173. National HIV Nurses Association. Advanced nursing practice in HIV care: guidelines for nurses, doctors, service providers and commissioners. 2016. Available at: https://www.nhivna.org/AdvancedPractice
174. Royal Pharmaceutical Society. A competency framework for all prescribers. 2016. Available at: www.rpharms.com/resources/frameworks/prescribers-competency-framework
175. Dietitians in HIV/AIDS. DHIVA competency framework: for dietitians working with patients living with HIV. DHIVA, 2014. Available at: dhiva.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/DHIVA_Competencies_Jan_14.pdf
176. Public Health England. Making it work. A guide to whole system commissioning for sexual health, reproductive health and HIV. PHE, 2014. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/commissioning-sexual-health-reproductive-health-and-hiv-services
177. 2013/14 Standard contract for specialist Human Immunodeficiency Virus Services. www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/b06-spec-hiv-serv.pdf
178. National Quality Board. National guidance learning from deaths. 2017. Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/nqb-national-guidance-learning-from-deaths.pdf
179. NHS National Institute for Health Research. Improving the health and wealth of the nation through research. 2012. Available at: www.nihr.ac.uk/Pages/default.aspx
180. Public Health England. HIV surveillance systems. PHE, 2008. Available at: www.gov.uk/guidance/hiv-surveillance-systems
181. NHS Digital. Standards and Collections. Available at: content.digital.nhs.uk/isce/publication/standards
182. General Medical Council. Confidentiality: good practice in handling patient information. GMC, 2017. Available at: www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/confidentiality.asp
183. Department of Health and Social Care. Confidentiality: NHS Code of Practice. 2003. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/confidentiality-nhs-code-of-practice
184. Health and Social Care Information Centre. A guide to confidentiality in health and social care. Treating confidential information with respect. HSCIC, 2013. Available at: http://content.digital.nhs.uk/media/12822/Guide-to-confidentiality-in-health-and-social-care/pdf/HSCIC-guide-to-confidentiality.pdf
185. National AIDS Trust. HIV patient information and NHS confidentiality in England. NAT, 2014. Available at: https://www.bhiva.org/file/BwCYqPxzGmIat/Jan-2014-HIV-Patient-Confidentiality-NHS.pdf
186. National AIDS Trust. Confidentiality and disclosure. NAT. Available at: www.nat.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/Jan-2014-HIV-Patient-Confidentiality-NHS.pdf
187. HIV Scotland/National AIDS Trust. Your choice: a guide to confidentiality and HIV in Scotland. 2016. Available at: https://www.hiv.scot/news/your-choice-a-guide-to-confidentiality-and-hiv